A century ago, Europe stumbled into a tragedy — WWI
08/01/2014 8:10 PM
08/01/2014 11:37 PM
British Pvt. John Parr set off on his reconnaissance bike looking for German troops amid the rolling land south of Brussels in August 1914. It was the last anyone saw of “Ole Man” Parr, the nickname he had won due to his age — 17.
Today, Parr is remembered as the first Commonwealth soldier to die on the Western Front of World War I, likely killed by German gunfire.
Another British private, George Ellison, already was moving to face the Germans in southern Belgium for the first battle of the two empires. He went on to survive the horrific slaughter of the Somme and Passchendaele and came back to the Belgian pastures, where he was shot and killed on Nov. 11, 1918 – the last day of the war.
Now, Parr and Ellison lie separated by a few footsteps – and 9 million dead soldiers over four years – in the cemetery of Saint Symphorien. The jarring contrast of distance and death count symbolizes what no one knew in early August 1914 — that the great powers of the age had unleashed hell when they declared war.
“They didn’t, most of them, foresee what the war would turn into,” said Oxford University historian Margaret MacMillan. “If they had known what the war was going to be — four years of huge slaughter, consumption of resources, destruction in many cases of their own societies — they might have thought differently.”
Nobody foresaw the cataclysm that would befall the world the day of Aug. 4 — 100 years ago Monday — when the conflict erupted in full force with the German invasion of Belgium and the British declaration of war.
Both sides thought the war would be over by Christmas. Instead, a battlefront scar would slowly and agonizingly rip across Europe, ravage whole societies and millions of families.
It produced a moral wasteland in Germany that would become fertile ground for the rise of Nazism. Four empires would disappear.
On Sunday, French President Francois Hollande will host his German counterpart Joachim Gauck near their common border in oft-disputed Alsace to underline their friendship despite bitterly fighting two world wars in the 20th century. On Monday, Gauck will join Britain’s Prince William, his wife Catherine and brother Prince Harry at the Saint Symphorien cemetery for a similar remembrance. In Britain, there will be ceremonies in Glasgow and a candlelit vigil at London’s Westminster Abbey.
It will set off four years of centennial events from Russia to China to Australia, through Belgium, France, Germany and Britain – underscoring that there was hardly a place on the planet untouched by the calamity. The United States tried to avoid the conflict but entered the war in 1917, sending 2 million Doughboys to fight.
With soaring tensions over Ukraine, the causes of World War I have had special resonance this year. A century ago, few thought war was imminent until the June 28 killing in Sarajevo of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of the Austro-Hungarian empire.
Yet those shots fired by Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Bosnia-Herzegovina carried tragic echoes. A political puzzle of complicated alliances fell into place that inexorably closed in on total war between the alliance of German and the Austro-Hungarian empires and the Allied powers of Britain, France and Russia.
Then as now, global peace and prosperity did not seem an unreasonable expectation.
“Europe went so quickly from peace to war – five weeks, from the assassination June 28th in Sarajevo to a general war on Aug. 4,” said MacMillan. “And you do feel: ‘Don’t you realize what you will be throwing away?’ People are on summer holidays in these lovely towns. Europe is getting more prosperous and they are about to throw themselves into this catastrophic struggle.”
In a half-dozen crises over the five years leading to the Great War, countries always had stepped back from the brink. This time though, “you had people who had decided for various reasons they were not going to back down.”
Germany opened the Western Front on Aug. 4, sweeping into Belgium, hoping to overwhelm France before Russia had a chance to mobilize to the east.
The Schlieffen Plan was conceived as a lightning-fast operation that would bring German forces into Paris within weeks. It is why the fierce battles around Belgium’s Liege and Mons have such significance – since holding up the Germans for a few days, even in defeat, delayed their operation and deprived them of a swift victory.
It is what gives the death of Parr – on Aug. 21, 1914 – and some 1,500 British soldiers in Belgium military meaning, said Peter Francis of the Commonwealth War Graves Commission.
“It was an ordered defeat, if that makes sense,” Francis said, “It is a defeat that bought time. It allowed the Schlieffen Plan to be held up and start to crumble. It was a defeat that bought another day.”
Such defeats bought more than that. They bought another week, another month and, in a sense, four more years.
Editor's Choice Videos
Join the Discussion
The State is pleased to provide this opportunity to share information, experiences and observations about what's in the news. Some of the comments may be reprinted elsewhere on the site or in the newspaper. We encourage lively, open debate on the issues of the day, and ask that you refrain from profanity, hate speech, personal comments and remarks that are off point. Thank you for taking the time to offer your thoughts.